1.Most geologic processes are driven by

1.Most geologic processes are driven by



the hydrologic cycle.


solar input.


internal heat.


long-term erosion.


2.The principle of uniformitarianism maintains that we should



treat all events as having the same cause.


disregard evidence of sudden events.


use past events to interpret present events.


use present events to interpret past events.



3.One surprising feature of Earth’s interior is that



it is much denser than the exterior, so it isn’t all made of “rock.”


it is much less dense than the exterior, so it isn’t all made of “rock.”


it is about the same density at all depths, so the composition is uniform (except for pressure effects).


its density cannot be determined by available methods.


4.The Mohorovičić discontinuity (the Moho) is the boundary between the crust and the mantle. Therefore it is primarily a



boundary based on behavioral differences.


boundary based on compositional differences.


boundary based on political differences.


boundary based on obsolete differences.



5.The base of the lithosphere separates this layer from the underlying asthenosphere. It is primarily



a behavioral boundary.


a compositional boundary.


a political boundary.


an obsolete boundary.





6.Tectonic plates are best described as



pieces of crust.


pieces of mantle.


pieces of lithosphere.


pieces of asthenosphere.


pieces of hydrosphere.



7.Earth’s magnetic field is generated by



magnetic minerals in the mantle.


solar radiation in the atmosphere.


industrial activities in the northern hemisphere.


rotation of the inner core.


circulation in the outer core.




8.Earth’s overall chemical composition differs from Jupiter’s because



they differ in age.


one was captured from a passing solar system.


they formed at different distances from the Sun.


Jupiter is larger.


Earth has a relatively large Moon (almost a twin planet).



9.Explain the difference between a hypothesis and a theory. While doing so, avoid words such as proof, proven, and true. Feel free to use words such as evidence, support, and useful.


10.Name and describe the two layers inside Earth that are undergoing convection and indicate one major consequence of each.


11.Briefly explain P waves and S waves and how their reflection and refraction can provide insight into Earth’s internal structure.




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