Learning Theories Quiz Assignment

Question 1 of 20

Experiments have shown that in situations where optimization theory predicts one behavior and the

matching law predicts another:

  

A. animals usually behave as the matching law predicts.

  

B. animals usually behave as optimization theory predicts.

  

C. animals shift back and forth, sometimes following the matching law and sometimes

optimization theory.

  

D. people follow the matching law but animals do not.

Question 2 of 20

5.0 Points

In phase 1 of a choice experiment involving concurrent VI schedules, a human subject receives 25%

of his reinforcers by making a left response. In phase 2, he receives 75% of his reinforcers by

making a left response. The subject's percentage of left responses is 40% in phase 1, and 60% in

phase 2. This performance is an example of:

  

A. matching.

  

B. undermatching.

  

C. overmatching.

  

D. bias.

Question 3 of 20

5.0 Points

In a self-control choice situation where the actual reinforcers are visible during a delay, both children

and animals are more likely to choose the __________ reinforcer.

  

A. smaller, more immediate

  

B. medium, more immediate

  

C. medium, delayed

  

D. larger, delayed

Question 4 of 20

5.0 Points

__________ can happen if subjects get in the habit of switching between two options, which can be

accidentally reinforced if a reinforcer is given immediately after a subject switches.

  

A. Tragedy of the commons

  

B. Bias

  

C. Overmatching

  

D. Undermatching

Question 5 of 20

5.0 Points

Cases in which people choose a small immediate reinforcer instead of a larger delay reinforcer can

be viewed as evidence:

  

A. against optimization theory.

  

B. against momentary maximizing theory.

  

C. against the Ainslie-Rachlin theory.

  

D. supporting optimization theory.Reset Selection

Question 6 of 20

5.0 Points

An individual must make a choice between a small reinforcer and a larger but more delayed

reinforcer. If the individual is forced to make a commitment well in advance of when the options will

be delivered, the individual will be:

  

A. more unpredictable.

  

B. more likely to choose the small reinforcer.

  

C. more likely to choose the large reinforcer.

  

D. None of the above

Question 7 of 20

5.0 Points

In phase 1 of a choice experiment involving concurrent VI schedules, a human subject receives 25%

of his reinforcers by making a left response. In phase 2, he receives 75% of his reinforcers by

making a left response. The subject's percentage of left responses is 15% in phase 1, and 81% in

phase 2. This performance is an example of:

  

A. matching.

  

B. undermatching.

  

C. overmatching.

  

D. bias.

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