Two 550 Discussion Board Replies Footnotes And Turabian Format

Turabian format two 550  DB Replies Must use Footnotes ***Must use the Classmate name so I know which reply belong to which student 

must be cited using footnotes in current Turabian and will not count towards the total word count.

Reply: After reading your classmates’ threads, choose one to which you will respond, then write a reply that interacts with your classmate’s thread and presents a well-reasoned alternative to your classmate’s approach to the issue. You do not have to defend a position that is diametrically opposed to your classmate’s position, but you do need to critically evaluate your classmate’s position in a way that points out strengths and possible weaknesses.

****Maria Student 1****

Applying My Ethical Theory

I have chosen to apply my metaethics to the issue of life and death. Specifically, the sub issue of abortion. My metaethics in summary is a combination of revelational christian ethic as the primary ethic with an overlap of virtue ethics with Jesus being the virtuous model. The relevational christian ethic that I consider my moral compass for right and wrong is the Christian Bible.

Because the Christian Bible states that all humans are made in the image of God and that only God has the moral right to take life, I believe that the taking of any human life is morally wrong. The Bible states in Psalm 139 that human life as we know begins in the mother’s womb. [1] While some may suppose that life actually begins earlier than this is a red herring to the actual point of the passage. Whether or not there was some soul expression of life before conception or not is not the point. The point is that a baby in a mother’s womb is viewed by God as a human life.

Because the Bible clearly states that a child in the mother’s womb is a human and made in the image of God, then the ending of this life would be murder. Murder is labeled as unethical, sinful and immoral by God. Beginning in Genesis (the story of Cain and Abel) [2] and continuing in Exodus when God gave the ten commandments which include “Thou shalt not kill.” [3]

While people can argue about the exact moment when “the conception of life happens”, what is clear is that at some point in the womb that tissue, beating heart and brain becomes so clearly human that any child would know this is a human being. I speak here about a baby, 3-9 months old, with healthy and functioning organs, eyes and ears. People can build their arguments on the exceptions. With the exceptions of miscarriage and deformity most pregnancies, if left to themselves, will mature into a living being that could survive with normal medical care outside of the womb. My argument is that at this point the taking of such a life is in clear violation of the word and heart of God. While I personally believe that the conception of that soul and life begin even earlier, I will not press that belief here as it is more subject to debate.

In addition to the clear immortality of taking of a life in the human womb I would also add that the virtue ethic reiterates this position with Jesus being viewed as the virtuous model. Jesus repeatedly taught that the highest virtue and expression of God’s heart is to care for “the least of these.” [4] Specifically, in Matthew 25 Jesus states that at the end of this life many professing Christians who think they will be entering heaven will be denied entrance based on how they treated the “least of these.” Others, who did not expect to enter heaven will be welcomed into His kingdom again based on their treatment of “the least of these.” Jesus’ concept of the “least of these” is people who cannot feed themselves, clothe themselves, defend themselves, or protect and get justice for themselves. I can think of no other situation that more embodies these traits of “the least of these” than a human being in its mother’s womb completely vulnerable and susceptible to anything its mother allows to happen to it.

[1] Psalm 139:13, The Holy Bible, New International Version. 

[2] Genesis 4:1-16, The Holy Bible, New International Version. 

[3] Exodus 20:6, The Holy Bible, New International Version. 

[4] Matthew 25:40, The Holy Bible, New International Version.

******Sam Student 2*****

Ethical Theory Application Discussion


In the previous thread, I had put together my own personal theory that I apply in everyday life. This was a combination of Divine Nature, Divine Command, and Utilitarianism. Divine Command and Nature are similar in that they have God and the bible’s teachings at the basis of it. However, the main difference is how Divine Command stays firm in how God commands everything is how it is but does not acknowledge in how God granted us free will to think of morals and what God commands as a structure for what we know to be good and bad. Utilitarianism is the ethics stating that our actions will not only have potential consequences in our own lives but also to other around us. There are multiple issues that this theory could be applied in that would coincide with it. One of those being in how we handle and see issues that are going on within families. Whether it be small issues that could easily be resolved or larger issues that deal with more serious subjects, there is a way that one carry themselves during the situation. One of the first things that my theory will establish is the combination of Divine Nature and Divine Command. We know that our modern day morals and ethics are established through Him and His word. So the first thing to do is learn what God tells us is right and wrong in the morals of the treatment of people, or in this case family, around us. A primary verse in the bible that discusses how we treat others is Matthew 7:12 “So whatever you wish that others would do to you, do also to them”. This could be interpreted as no matter what is going on in a person’s life or what the issue is between family members, we must always treat them in the way we would want to be treated because we don’t know what is going behind closed doors when we aren’t around family members. Utilitarianism is also something that can be incorporated into family issues. Especially in the situation of family, there are actions that can be done or not done that can have an effect on a multitude of family members such as addiction, affairs, and more. Children, spouses, parents, and other various family relatives can be effected by an issue depending on how widespread it is through the family. Also, in combination with the previous theory, God also speaks of how we should be aware of this in our day-to-day life. One of the primary verses for this is found in Philippians 2:4 “Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interest of others”. Also, utilitarianism means that we should care for one another as we would want to take care of ourselves. And in the case of family, this is especially important to God. 1 Timothy 5:8 speaks clearly of the importance and consequence of not caring for family in any given situation: “But if anyone does not provide for his relatives, and especially for members of his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever”. To tie all of this together, this theory is applicable in any given family issue because it not only explains that we should not be quick to judge and treat them with the same love and respect as we would want, but it also provides the biblical information for those who place their foundation  

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