Read Chapter 19 and 20
In this week’s lecture, we can begin to understand the importance of innovation. There are many aspects of science and technology that we’ve used to enhance our ability to be more efficient in many aspects of our businesses. In healthcare industry, we are now able to operate on patients to remove cancerous tumors that may be otherwise deadly. Sound technology, right? In construction industry, we’re able to now build houses in less than a month with treated cement, concrete and steel reinforcements. Sound technology, right? In law enforcement, we’re able to track DNA sample of “perps” in order to be more accurate during convictions, etc.
In transportation and logistics, we’re now able to avoid unnecessary wastes of time in traffic congestions. We also able to plot and plan our infrastructures well in advance so that these delays are better controlled. So the use of GPS satellites has yielded GIS system. Be careful with your definitions. GPS (global positioning satellites) use triangulated data to pinpoint location of any data “X”. There were 6 low earth orbiting satellites in the 1990s that were used for this purpose until NASA introduced their “selective availability” so that enemy forces can’t find some sensitive locations in the US (Parkinson, 1996). Today, there are about 30 of them (NAVSTAR) and people can use them for fishing, skiing, jogging, driving hiking etc – eg Garmin®. However GIS uses non-real-time data to represent man-made facilities. You can’t quite call it a map, and you can’t quite call it a tracking sensor. The system simply denotes objects both on the surface of the earth and underneath as well. Now that you have these information, why would it be a great asset for our troops to have GIS capability as opposed to GPS? Think logistics.
GIS is also used in engineering to show buried public utility lines like electrical lines, water lines, sewer lines, fiber optics lines, phone/data communication lines, gas lines (abandoned and active), storm water lines, roads, facilities etc. The idea is to graphically represent these utilities and facilities (aka “as-built” drawings) so that programming and planning of future constructions is embedded and/or recorded. Some of the advantages of GIS system include the fact that dig permits can be issued to potential workers and construction mangers prior to start of work in their respective areas. That way, workers are not electrocuted if they cut a live high voltage cables. Also it helps to prevent damages to waterlines that could flood the city or cut off a section of water users etc. Now can you name three disadvantages of GIS?
I don’t know if you’ve noticed: but when you’re driving on a highway, sometimes under the bridge, you could see a black cable that runs across the road, from one side to the other. That cable is used by DoT to track the number of passes a road can sustain before repair and maintenance will be required. Also in GIS system, these data are usually transcribed to forecast future traffic patterns in a designated trunk or roadway. Today, these information are used by GPS systems in our cars to predict traffic congestions so drivers can avoid certain roads if they were in a hurry. Can you tell me what else these GIS information can predict?
Consequently, in other aspects of trade and logistics, there are efforts we have made to streamline trade agreements, check our economic downfall (stimulus) and protect our national parks and forests. This week, we need to pay attention to some real-time current affairs to see how far we’ve come and how far we’ll be going in terms of transportation logistics technology and innovation.
This is the forum post instructions, minimum 250 word: This is due by Thursday:
Topic 1 – GIS
What is GIS and how is it related to Transportation Economics? What can GIS do to help transportation economists to save money? What impact might GIS have on future projects in transportation?
Sinha, K. C., &Labi, S. (2008). Transportation decision making, principles of project evaluation and programming. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Please upload a Word document using APA format for this assignment (see attached for the template). Where applicable, you must show your derivations, analysis and how you obtained the responses/answers. Use title page, in-text citations, references, appropriate font size, double spaces, etc where appropriate. The assignment will be graded for content, APA formatting, met deadlines for submission. See the following rubric below.
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1- Today’s urban transportation planning process is being impacted by the President’s Stimulus Plan. High speed rail is one such option to congestion along the highways of urban areas. These projects have two sides to them. There are those who support high speed rail and those who do not support high speed rail. You have been chosen to not support the Stimulus Plan for use of high speed rail to ease congestion. Your task is to help decision makers make up their minds. So, you are now on the opposing side. Discuss how this Stimulus Plan for high speed rail will not work. You can use any reference. But, you must also present your opinion based on facts and data, not just because you don’t like it. You will have to provide evidence to back up what you believe is a bad idea. (25 points)
2- Most (97 percent) roads and streets in the United States are under the jurisdiction of State and local governments. The Federal jurisdiction is mainly limited to National Parks, National For ests, and other government-owned land. Discuss what issues and problems might be common between the Federal jurisdiction and the State and Local governments, and what issues and problems might be unique to the Federal government compared to the State and local governments. List the common and unique attributes and provide a brief explanation to support your choice. Use references in APA format and also offer your own opinion on what you think of these issues and problems. (25 points)
3- The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect on January 1, 1994. This sweeping agreement is designed to open the borders separating Canada, Mexico, and the United States to the free exchange of goods and services. There are many pros and cons of NAFTA that have emerged since 1994. The future of NAFTA is in the wind these days. It may fail or succeed for the next ten years. You job is to help Congress and other decision makers to decide what course of action they should take regarding NAFTA’s future. You are to take the side that NAFTA is a bad business investment; you are to represent the “con” side of the argument. So, discuss why you would defeat or destroy NAFTA or morph it from its current state to some other new state. (25 points)
4- In early 1990s with a second wave of low-cost carriers (LCCs), which led to the second period of strong traffic growth from early 1993 through early 2000, Southwest Airlines arguably provided the blueprint for U.S. Between 2006 and 2009 a fuel crisis happened and a recession for business and the transportation industry. What is the impact today on LCC’s in order to be competitive in this economy coming on the heels of this recession? (25 points)